Which Country Would Win the Programming Olympics?

On the greatness of Chinese programmers, from top-ranked Chinese competitive  programmer Shimi Zhang:In universities and colleges, education resources are relatively fewer in comparison with many other countries, so students have less choices in their paths to programming. Many great students end up obsessed with competitive programming since it’s one of the few paths.

Source: Which Country Would Win the Programming Olympics?

Competitive programming?  Is it like “write the smallest program in C which prints itself“?